These years of civil war in Russia were years when the West strove to understand the new communist regime whilst also seeking to undermine it. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks tried to spread their revolution across Europe at the same time they were seeking trade agreements that might revive their collapsing economy.
Conscription swept up the unwilling across Russia. The vast demand for factory production of war supplies and workers caused many more labor riots and strikes. Conscription stripped skilled workers from the cities, who had to be replaced with unskilled peasants, and then, when famine began to hit due to the poor railway system, workers abandoned the cities in droves seeking food.
Finally, the soldiers themselves, who suffered from a lack of equipment and protection from the elements, began to turn against the Tsar. This was mainly because, as the war progressed, many of the officers who were loyal to the Tsar were killed, and were replaced by discontented conscripts from the major cities, who had little loyalty to the Tsar.
Political issues The Petrograd Soviet Assembly meeting in Many sections of the country had reason to be dissatisfied with the existing autocracy. Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system.
Individuals and society in general were expected to show self-restraint, devotion to community, deference to the social hierarchy and a sense of duty to the country.
Religious faith helped bind all of these tenets together as a source of comfort and reassurance in the face of difficult conditions and as a means of political authority exercised through the clergy.
Perhaps more than any other modern monarch, Nicholas II attached his fate and the future of his dynasty to the notion of the ruler as a saintly and infallible father to his people. With a firm belief that his power to rule was granted by Divine RightNicholas assumed that the Russian people were devoted to him with unquestioning loyalty.
This ironclad belief rendered Nicholas unwilling to allow the progressive reforms that might have alleviated the suffering of the Russian people. Even after the revolution spurred the Tsar to decree limited civil rights and democratic representation, he worked to limit even these liberties in order to preserve the ultimate authority of the crown.
Since the Age of EnlightenmentRussian intellectuals had promoted Enlightenment ideals such as the dignity of the individual and the rectitude of democratic representation.
These ideals were championed most vociferously by Russia's liberals, although populists, Marxists, and anarchists also claimed to support democratic reforms.
A growing opposition movement had begun to challenge the Romanov monarchy openly well before the turmoil of World War I. Dissatisfaction with Russian autocracy culminated in the huge national upheaval that followed the Bloody Sunday massacre of Januaryin which hundreds of unarmed protesters were shot by the Tsar's troops.
Workers responded to the massacre with a crippling general strike, forcing Nicholas to put forth the October Manifestowhich established a democratically elected parliament the State Duma.
The Tsar undermined this promise of reform but a year later with Article 87 of the Fundamental State Lawsand subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative.
Unfulfilled hopes of democracy fueled revolutionary ideas and violent outbursts targeted at the monarchy.
One of the Tsar's principal rationales for risking war in was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost amid the debacles of the Russo-Japanese war.
Nicholas also sought to foster a greater sense of national unity with a war against a common and ancient enemy. The Russian Empire was an agglomeration of diverse ethnicities that had shown significant signs of disunity in the years before the First World War.
Nicholas believed in part that the shared peril and tribulation of a foreign war would mitigate the social unrest over the persistent issues of poverty, inequality, and inhuman working conditions.
Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I led to the horrifying slaughter of Russian troops and military defeats that undermined both the monarchy and society in general to the point of collapse. World War I The outbreak of war in August initially served to quiet the prevalent social and political protests, focusing hostilities against a common external enemy, but this patriotic unity did not last long.
As the war dragged on inconclusively, war-weariness gradually took its toll. More important, though, was a deeper fragility: Hostility toward the Kaiser and the desire to defend their land and their lives did not necessarily translate into enthusiasm for the Tsar or the government.
However, Austro-Hungarian forces allied to Germany were driven back deep into the Galicia region by the end of the year. In the autumn ofNicholas had taken direct command of the army, personally overseeing Russia's main theatre of war and leaving his ambitious but incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government.
Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented.
In the eyes of Michael Lynch, a revisionist historian member of the School of Historical Studies at the University of Leicester who focuses on the role of the people, Rasputin was a "fatal disease" to the Tsarist regime. Inthings took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front.
By the end of OctoberRussia had lost between 1, and 1, soldiers, with an additional 2, prisoners of war and 1, missing, all making up a total of nearly 5, men. These staggering losses played a definite role in the mutinies and revolts that began to occur.
Inreports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry, and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons.
Rampant discontent lowered morale, which was further undermined by a series of military defeats. Russian troops awaiting German attack in trenches Casualty rates were the most vivid sign of this disaster. Already, by the end ofonly five months into the war, aroundRussian men had lost their lives and nearly 1, were injured.The Provisional Government, (5 November new style), the Bolsheviks' Central Committee voted 10–2 for a resolution saying that "an armed uprising is inevitable, well as how individual life-structure and psychology may have shaped major decisions in the civil war that followed the revolution.
During the late Soviet period, the opening.
The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the In the October Revolution (November in The Russian Revolution, Volume I: From the Overthrow of the Tsar to the Assumption of Power by the Bolsheviks; The Russian Revolution, Volume.
This revolution, the first Marxist communist revolution of the twentieth century, was led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik party. The Bolshevik Revolution was caused by the initial weaknesses of the Provisional Government and the sudden rise of Bolshevik power.
On November 17 (Old Calendar) the Bolsheviks and Left SRs formed a coalition government. The former brief description of the events leading to the Bolshevik revolution are fairly well established; Smith enriches the account of those events and then delves into many of the controversies around them, presenting a comprehensive review of.
Also called the Bolshevik Revolution, the second stage of the revolution of brought the Bolshevik Party to power and established the Soviet Communist government in Russia. Check this event in the WWI timeline.
Russian Revolution of , two revolutions, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in .