Government and society Constitutional framework Malawi is a multiparty republic.
Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of early settlements around Lake Malawi, dating back to the late Stone and Iron Ages. The area is mentioned in early Arab writings and in Portuguese writings of the 17th and 18th centuries. The pre-colonial Maravi Empire was a loosely organised society covering an expanse of territory well beyond present-day Malawi and encompassed first the Chewa and later the Tumbuka ethnic groups.
The Yao from the north and the Ngoni made successful invasions during the 19th century. The Yao became involved in the commercial slave trade, acting as agents for the coastal Arabs.
David Livingstone visited Lake Malawi then called Lake Nyasa in and was followed in succeeding decades by British missionaries, traders and planters.
This was an unsettled period, with widespread slave raiding. InBritain declared the country the British Protectorate of Nyasaland. The Federation was vigorously opposed and, inDr Hastings Kamuzu Banda returned home from Ghana, at the invitation of the Nyasaland African Congress, to lead the fight against it.
The government declared a state of emergency in and arrested Banda and other members of Congress. Following his release ina series of constitutional conferences was held, as were elections.
Internal self-government was achieved inthe Federation was dissolved and Malawi attained independence and joined the Commonwealth on 6 Julywith Banda as Prime Minister. In Malawi became a republic, with Banda as President. A new constitution gave the President, who was also commander- in-chief of the armed forces, widespread powers.
He held a number of ministerial portfolios, including External Affairs, Agriculture, Justice and Works. The following decade saw widespread political unrest, much of it arising from splits and rivalries. Pressure for democratic reform intensified at the end of the s.
The one-party government held out for a period: Strikes, student demonstrations and political riots were suppressed by police, in the course of which at least 38 people died. Western donors supported the campaign for multiparty democracy by suspending non-humanitarian aid to Malawi in May The reformers joined forces in a Public Affairs Committee PAC — an umbrella body of religious and political groups calling for change.
Over 78 per cent of the adult population voted in the referendum on 14 Juneand 63 per cent supported a multiparty system. The constitution was accordingly amended.
Banda also announced an amnesty for all Malawians imprisoned or exiled for political activities.However Malawi’s agriculture, rural livelihoods, and economy, and technical understanding of them, are themselves strongly influenced by its history of changing political circumstances and deep-rooted political influences and processes.
Malawi: Malawi, landlocked country in southeastern Africa. A country endowed with spectacular highlands and extensive lakes, it occupies a narrow, curving strip of land along the East African Rift Valley.
Lake Nyasa, known in Malawi as Lake Malawi, accounts for more than one-fifth of the country’s total.
POLITICS, DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE IN INDEPENDENT MALAWI: The dichotomy between promises and reality DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE IN INDEPENDENT MALAWI: The dichotomy between promises and reality MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY in this dissertation is that at every stage of political change.
Drivers of change analysis: its purpose and limits 1 This paper, an analysis of the drivers of change and development in Malawi, addresses three large questions: The social roots of the political system Malawi’s patronage-oriented political system has deep historical and social roots.
Colonialism. I. Origins and Historical Development of the Constitution The Constitution of Malawi, like many other constitutions in the world, is a product of the country’s socio-political and cultural history.
Curriculum Change and Development in Malawi: A Historical Overview social and political factors, the national curriculum is also influenced by external conditions and ideas.
Chisholm () argues that the wind of curriculum change sweeping across nations, especially in Southern Africa ) in different national contexts, history .