It was attracting converts from different social levels. Christian theology and art was enriched through the cultural interaction with the Greco-Roman world.
The beginnings of Christian art can be dated to the end of the second century or the early years of the third century A. The appearance of a comparatively large body of material from this period is a good testament to the dramatic growth of Christianity in this period.
The large number of catacombs ringing Rome as documented by the following map is a good demonstration of this spread of Christianity. It used to be believed that the catacombs were secretive, but as documented by the map above, they appear along the principal roads leading into Rome.
Their appearance outside the walls of Rome follows the Roman custom of not burying the dead within Rome. Christian catacombs were frequently adjacent to non-Christian ones. The newly won converts to Christianity were products of the classical culture of the Ancient world.
Rather Early christian art reject their cultural heritage, the new Christians assimilated the classical culture into Christianity.
Byzantine art, that is the art of the Eastern Orthodox Church - the form of Christianity that emerged in Constantinople (previously called Byzantium, now called Istanbul), headquarters of the Roman Empire in the east - was the first category of Christian art to really blossom. A Christian sign or icon is an object, character, figure, or color used to represent abstract ideas or concepts - a picture that represents an idea and fundamental to understanding the icons and images found in Early Christian Art. Early Christian art, also called Paleo-Christian art or primitive Christian art, architecture, painting, and sculpture from the beginnings of Christianity until about the early 6th century, particularly the art of Italy and the western Mediterranean.
Christian theology, literature, and art of this period bears the unmistakable imprint of this mixing of Christian and classical. For example, the Christian writer Clement of Alexandria, writing at the end of the second and the beginning of the third century, infuses his texts with a strong knowledge of classical literature, mythology, and philosophy.
This is well illustrated by an excerpt from a text entitled The Protreptikos. Here we find references to Homer and Plato along side Biblical citations.
The image of Christ the Word as the logos and teacher is derived from Greek philosophy.
Christ and the Christian as a philosopher is an important theme in Early Christian art. For example in a catacomb painting Christ as the philosopher is flanked by his disciples much like a representation of Socrates surrounded by his students: Notice here how Christ is given authority by being represented with the gesture of authority while holding onto a scroll.
Even his dress, a toga, is the dress associated with authority. A fourth century painting of St. Paul already has his characteristic pointed beard and dark hair with receding hairline: Paul's dress, the scroll in his hands, and the container with more scrolls at his feet, all identify Paul as a philosopher.
Compare the painting of St. A third century sarcophagus or tomb now in the church of Sta. Maria Antiqua has at its center a representation of a seated man holding a scroll and a standing woman: This is clearly based on the Classical formula of the philosopher and his muse.
A sixth manuscript made in Constantinople known as the Vienna Dioscorides includes miniatures showing Dioscorides, a first century Greek physician and compiler of this medical encylopedia, accompanied by muses: While of much later date than the Roman sarcophagus, the Dioscorides manuscript is clearly based on a much earlier prototype.
We know that deluxe copies of Classical texts were regularly introduced with author portraits like this. The formula of the philosopher and his muse appeared on non-Christian sarcophagi as well as illustrated by the following sarcophagus from the early third century: An interesting detail about the Sta Maria Antiqua sarcophagus is the fact that the heads of the man and the woman are unfinished.
How would you explain this? What does this say about the status of Christianity at this period and the nature of the art industry in Rome? The formulas for representing figures in the earliest Christian art were clearly derived from the conventions of Classical art.
Compare for example the representation of Jonah sleeping under the gourd to a reclining figure from a mythological sarcophagus: The gesture of the arm over the head is a formula derived from Greek art for representing sleep.
A Hellenistic sleeping Ariadne figure demonstrates the ancestry of this pose: On the right side of the Santa Maria Antiqua sarcophagus appear two scenes.
The first is the theme of the Good Shepherd. While echoing the New Testament parable of the Good Shepherd and the Psalms of David, the motif had clear parallels in Greek and Roman art, going back at least to Archaic Greek art, as exemplified by the so-called Moschophoros, or calf-bearer, from the sixth century B.A striking aspect of the Christian art of the third century is the absence of the imagery that will dominate later Christian art.
We do not find in this early period images of the Nativity, Crucifixion, or Resurrection of Christ for example. Early Christian Architecture. Early ecclesiastical architecture reflected the needs of both clergy and congregation. The basic difference between a Christian church and a pagan temple, is that the latter was designed to be the dwelling of the God/Goddess in question, and the place where priests of the cult might offer suitable sacrifices and hold .
Byzantine art, that is the art of the Eastern Orthodox Church - the form of Christianity that emerged in Constantinople (previously called Byzantium, now called Istanbul), headquarters of the Roman Empire in the east - was the first category of Christian art .
A striking aspect of the Christian art of the third century is the absence of the imagery that will dominate later Christian art. We do not find in this early period images of the Nativity, Crucifixion, or Resurrection of Christ, for example. Early Christian art, also called Paleo-Christian art or primitive Christian art, architecture, painting, and sculpture from the beginnings of Christianity until about the early 6th century, particularly the art of Italy and the western Mediterranean.
Early Christian art survives from dates near the origins of Christianity. The oldest Christian sculptures are from sarcophagi, dating to the beginning of the 2nd alphabetnyc.com largest groups of Early Christian paintings come from the tombs in the Catacombs of Rome, and show the evolution of the depiction of Jesus, a process not complete until the 6th century, since when the conventional.