Disclaimer Mortality among people who inject drugs: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Fatal overdose and infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV and other blood-borne viruses transmitted through shared needles and syringes are the most common causes of death in this group. Longitudinal studies of people who inject drugs are critical for assessing the magnitude, nature and correlates of the risk of death in this population.
Background[ edit ] The idea of death, the fear of it, haunts the human animal like nothing else; it is a mainspring of human activity—activity designed largely to avoid the fatality of death, to overcome it by denying in some way that it is the final destiny for man.
They therefore spend their lives building and believing in cultural elements that illustrate how to make themselves stand out as individuals and give their lives significance and meaning.
Death creates an anxiety in humans; it strikes at unexpected and random moments, and its nature is essentially unknowable, causing people to spend most of their time and energy to explain, forestall, and avoid it. Brownand Otto Rank. According to clinical psychiatrist Morton LevittBecker replaces the Freudian preoccupation with sexuality with the fear of death as the primary motivation in human behavior.
This feeling counters the cognitive dissonance created by an individual's realization that they may be no more important than any other living thing.
Becker refers to high self-esteem as heroism: Society itself is a codified hero system, which means that society everywhere is a living myth of the significance of human life, a defiant creation of meaning. A research article in Psychological Review proposes a three-part model for understanding how awareness of death can ironically subvert health-promoting behaviors by redirecting one's focus towards behaviors that build self-esteem instead: Proposition 2 suggests that the unconscious resonance of death-related cognition promotes self-oriented defenses directed toward maintaining, not one's health, but a sense of meaning and self-esteem.
The last proposition suggests that confrontations with the physical body may undermine symbolic defenses and thus present a previously unrecognized barrier to health promotion activities. However, generalized existential anxiety resulting from the clash between a desire for life and awareness of the inevitability of death is neither adaptive nor selected for.
TMT views existential anxiety as an unfortunate byproduct of these two highly adaptive human proclivities rather than as an adaptation that the evolutionary process selected for its advantages.
Just as human bipedalism confers advantages as well as disadvantages, death anxiety is an inevitable part of our intelligence and awareness of dangers. Anxiety in response to the inevitability of death threatened to undermine adaptive functioning and therefore needed amelioration.
TMT posits that humankind used the same intellectual capacities that gave rise to this problem to fashion cultural beliefs and values that provided protection against this potential anxiety.
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TMT considers these cultural beliefs even unpleasant and frightening ones, such as ritual human sacrifice when they manage potential death anxiety in a way that promotes beliefs and behaviors which facilitated the functioning and survival of the collective.
Hunter-gatherers used their emerging cognitive abilities to facilitate solving practical problems, such as basic needs for nutrition, mating, and tool-making.
As these abilities evolved, an explicit awareness of death also emerged. But once this awareness materialized, the potential for terror that it created put pressure on emerging conceptions of reality.
Any conceptual formation that was to be widely accepted by the group needed to provide a means of managing this terror. Originally, the emergence of morality evolved to facilitate co-existence within groups. Together with language, morality served pragmatic functions that extended survival.
The struggle to deny the finality of death co-opted and changed the function of these cultural inventions. For example, Neanderthals might have begun burying their dead as a means of avoiding unpleasant odors, disease-infested parasites, or dangerous scavengers.
But during the Upper Paleolithic era, these pragmatic burial practices appear to have become imbued with layers of ritual performance and supernatural beliefs, suggested by the elaborate decoration of bodies with thousands of beads or other markers. Food and other necessities were also included within the burial chamber, indicating the potential for a belief system that included life after death.
In many human cultures today, funerals are viewed primarily as cultural events, viewed through the lens of morality and language, with little thought given to the utilitarian origins of burying the dead.
Evolutionary history also indicates that "the costs of ignoring threats have outweighed the costs of ignoring opportunities for self-development.
Self-esteem[ edit ] Self-esteem lies at the heart of TMT and is a fundamental aspect of its core paradigms.
TMT fundamentally seeks to elucidate the causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem. Theoretically, it draws heavily from Ernest Becker 's conceptions of culture and self-esteem Becker, ;  Becker, . TMT not only attempts to explain the concept of self-esteem, it also tries to explain why we need self-esteem.
It helps people control their sense of terror and nullify the realization that humans are just animals trying to manage the world around them. According to TMT, self-esteem is a sense of personal value that is created by beliefs in the validity of one's cultural worldview, and the belief that one is living up to the cultural standards created by that worldview.
In some cases, people may be so concerned with their physical appearance and boosting their self-esteem that they ignore problems or concerns with their own physical health.
The studies found that people are influenced by the situations around them. For instance, people who smoked for extrinsic reasons and were previously prompted with death reminders were more likely to be compelled by the anti-smoking message.
To a point, increasing self-consciousness is adaptive in that it helps prevent awareness of danger.
However, research has demonstrated that there may be diminishing returns from this phenomenon. Individuals with higher levels of self-consciousness sometimes have increased death cognition, and a more negative outlook on life, than those with reduced self-consciousness.
Research has confirmed that individuals with higher self-esteem, particularly in regard to their behavior, have a more positive attitude towards their life.Introduction.
Six years have transpired since publication of the last policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) regarding breastfeeding. 1 Recently published research and systematic reviews have reinforced the conclusion that breastfeeding and human milk are the reference normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition.
The current statement updates the evidence for. Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research . Midlife increases in suicides and drug poisonings have been previously noted.
However, that these upward trends were persistent and large enough to drive up all-cause midlife mortality has, to our knowledge, been overlooked. If the white mortality rate for ages 45−54 had held at their value, 96, deaths would have been avoided from –, 7, in alone. Conflict Research Design Platform.
Design of micro level research, instruments and methods in conflict affected settings. The Households in Conflict Network would like to stimulate the discussion on the design of research in conflict affected settings.
The human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus that invades cells in the human immune system, making it highly susceptible to infectious diseases.
According to the World Health Organization, over , Americans have died from HIV/AIDS and over one million US citizens are living with the disease. Preliminary versions of economic research. Did Consumers Want Less Debt?
Consumer Credit Demand Versus Supply in the Wake of the Financial Crisis.