Methodologies in Foreign Language Teaching a brief historical overview "Any given method is only as effective as its implementation. It consisted mainly of exhaustive use of dictionaries, explanations of grammatical rules in Englishsome sample sentences, and exercise drills to practice the new structures. Little opportunity for real second-language acquisition existed then. This approach introduced the four principle language skills for the first time:
People often ask me questions like these: Isn't Chinese really difficult?
Which is harder, Chinese or Japanese? Without a moment's hesitation, I always reply that Mandarin is the easiest spoken language I have learned and that Chinese is the most difficult written language I have learned.
I learned to speak Mandarin fluently within about a year, but I've been studying written Chinese for half a century and it's still an enormous challenge. I'm sure that I'll never master it even if I live to be as old as Zhou Youguang.
For many languages that I've learned, the level of difficulty between spoken and written is not very great. I achieved a high degree of fluency within less than a year, and basically I could read and write anything I could say, and vice versa.
Of course, when you get into higher level intellectual discourse, then it becomes more Sanskritic, but for daily conversation that is not normally an issue. I find Japanese speaking, listening, reading, and writing all to be difficult, although the reading and writing — for obvious reasons — are more difficult than speaking and listening, at least for me.
To see how my own impressions compare with those of others, I invite Language Log readers to list between 2 and 6 "second" languages they have studied according to relative level of difficulty.
I'm limiting the number to 6 so as to keep this project of manageable size and also to keep show-offs under control.An overview of Gardner's socio-educational model and the significance of motivation as a contributing factor in second language (L2) acquisition.
A person’s second language or L2 is a language that is not the native language/first language/L1 of the speaker, but is learned by the speaker after his/her native language (usually a foreign language, see below).Additionally, a person’s second language can be explained as the second language in the country the speaker lives in and they may be both used in daily life.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English as a Second Language, High School, Adopted (a) The provisions of §§ of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts. A person's second language or L2 is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language has no presence or is not commonly spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called .
Biological Inheritance of Syntax. Linguist Noam Chomsky challenged old ideas about language acquisition in his first book, "Syntactic Structures," published in An overview of Gardner's socio-educational model and the significance of motivation as a contributing factor in second language (L2) acquisition.