This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Evidence independently links smoking, family history, and gender with increased risk of adenomatous polyps.
Gender issues in mental health Gender issues in mental health Defining gender The term gender is often used to classify the anatomy of a person's reproductive system as either male or female. In the social sciences, however, the concept of gender means much more than biological sex.
It refers to socially constructed expectations regarding the ways in which one should think and behave, depending The influence of gender on therapy outcomes sexual classification. These stereotypical expectations are commonly referred to as gender roles.
Attitudes toward gender roles are thought to result from complex interactions among societal, cultural, familial, religious, ethnic, and political influences.
Gender affects many aspects of life, including access to resources, methods of coping with stressstyles of interacting with others, self-evaluation, spirituality, and expectations of others.
These are all factors that can influence mental health either positively or negatively. Psychological gender studies seek to better understand the relationship between gender and mental health in order to reduce risk factors and improve treatment methods. Traditional gender roles define masculinity as having power and being in control in emotional situations, in the workplace, and in sexual relationships.
Acceptable male behaviors include competitiveness, independence, assertiveness, ambition, confidence, toughness, anger, and even violence to varying degrees. Males are expected to avoid such characteristics associated with femininity as emotional expressiveness, vulnerability weakness, helplessness, insecurity, worryand intimacy especially showing affection to other males.
Traditional femininity is defined as being nurturing, supportive, and assigning high priority to one's relationships. Women are expected to be emotionally expressive, dependent, passive, cooperative, warm, and accepting of subordinate status in marriage and employment.
Competitiveness, assertiveness, anger, and violence are viewed as unfeminine and are not generally tolerated as acceptable female behavior.
Gender theories Differences in gender roles have existed throughout history. Evolutionary theorists attribute these differences to the physiological characteristics of men and women that prescribed their best function for survival of the species.
In primitive societies, men adopted the roles of hunting and protecting their families because of their physical strength. Women's ability to bear and nurse children led them to adopt the roles of nurturing young, as well as the less physically dependent roles of gathering and preparing food.
These gender-dependent labor roles continued into the period of written human history, when people began to live in cities and form the earliest civilized societies.
In the s, the industrial movement marked a prominent division of labor into public and private domains. Men began leaving home to work, whereas women worked within the home.
Previously, both men and women frequently engaged in comparably respected, productive activities on their homestead. When men began working in the public domain, they acquired money, which was transferable for goods or services.
Women's work, on the other hand, was not transferable. Men's relative economic independence contributed to their power and influence, while women were reduced to an image of frailty and emotionality deemed appropriate only for domestic tasks and child-rearing.
Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of human development, which emerged from Freud's late-nineteenth-century European setting and medical training, reflected an attitude of male superiority.
Freud asserted that as children, boys recognize they are superior to girls when they discover the difference in their genitals. Girls, on the other hand, equate their lack of a penis with inferiority. This feeling of inferiority causes girls to idolize and desire their fathers, resulting in passivity, masochistic tendencies, jealousy and vanity—all seen by Freud as feminine characteristics.
Other developmental theorists rejected Freud's notions. Eric Erikson in and Lawrence Kohlberg in theorized that all humans begin as dependent on caregivers and gradually mature into independent and autonomous beings.
Such theories, however, still favored males because independence has historically been considered a masculine trait. By such a standard, males would consistently achieve greater levels of maturity than females.
Nancy Chodorow's object-relations theory in favored neither sex. She proposed that children develop according to interactions with their primary caregivers, who tend to be mothers.
Mothers identify with girls to a greater extent, fostering an ability to form rich interpersonal relationships, as well as dependency traits. Mothers push boys toward independence, helping them to adjust to the male-dominated work environment, but rendering them unaccustomed to emotional connection.
Chodorow's theory suggests both strengths and weaknesses inherent in male and female development, with neither deemed superior. Around that same timeSandra Bem advocated for androgyny, or high levels of both masculinity and femininity, as the key to mental health.
In the s, such psychologists as Carol Gilligan sought to build respect for stereotypically feminine traits.
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender is an innovative exploration of the intersection of gender and psychology—topics that resonate across disciplines and inform our everyday lives. This encyclopedia looks at issues of gender, identity, and psychological processes at the individual as well as the societal level, exploring topics. Mar 01, · The Partners in Care Project found that the effect of gender on outcomes was mixed, varying by intervention arm (i.e., increased resources for pharmacotherapy and increased resources for psychotherapy) and outcome measure (26,28). In Partners in Care, pharmacotherapy-focused CC reduced depression burden and improved the mental health quality of life among women, but not men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of Southeast Asian client- therapist ethnicity and language match on three therapy outcomes: number of ses sions with primary therapist, dropout from therapy and admission-discharge difference in Global Assessment Scale (GAS) scores.
They introduced the notion that women function according to an ethic of care and relatedness that is not inferior to men—just different.The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender is an innovative exploration of the intersection of gender and psychology—topics that resonate across disciplines and inform our everyday lives.
This encyclopedia looks at issues of gender, identity, and psychological processes at the individual as well as the societal level, exploring topics. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist’s gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients.
Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The . Gender differences may influence outcomes with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) in the treatment of patients with standard-risk Ewing sarcoma, a recent study published online.
Predicting outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy in child anxiety disorders: the influence of genetic, demographic and clinical information Jennifer L Hudson* 1, Kathryn J Lester* 2, Cathryn M.
Lewis 2 ; Maria Tropeano, Cathy Creswell 3, David A Collier 2, Peter. Outcomes research is a branch of public health research, which studies the end results Misuse of medical therapy and oversight in the course of clinical care; gender, and socioeconomic status influence the care of patients; Efficiency.
gender is a weak contributor to the outcome of therapy. However, he encouraged further examination of the influence of gender matching in therapy as, “its obvious relation to sex-role expectations and stereotypes in clinical settings makes it an important variable for empirical reexamination” (p.