Early records[ edit ] One of the earliest accounts of Islam's possible presence in North America dates towhen a Moroccan slave, called Estevanicowas shipwrecked near present-day Galveston, Texas. While enslaved, he became the religious leader and Imam for a slave community numbering approximately eighty Muslim men residing on his plantation.
The Muslim use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad.
Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines. Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, and Ali as the fourth.
Transition of caliphate into dynastic monarchy of Banu Umayya[ edit ] The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayyaincluding Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiyaanother of Uthman's kinsman.
This ultimately resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husainthe younger son of Ali from Fatimawas killed at the battle of karbala.
The rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu SufyanMuawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotismand in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues zakat to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila" pious filial support.
After he was murdered his followers immediately elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him.
Hasan, however, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, and that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public.
Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, to give his allegiance to Yazid, which he plainly refused.
His caravan was cordoned by Yazid's army at Karbala and he was killed with all his male companions — total 72 people, in a day long battle after which Yazid established himself as a sovereign, though strong public uprising erupted after his death against his dynasty to avenge the massacre of Karbala, but Banu Umayya were able to quickly suppress them all and ruled the Muslim world, till they were finally overthrown by Banu Abbas.
This period is seen formative in Sunni Islam as the founders of the four schools viz, Abu HanifaMalik bin AnasShafi'i and Ahmad bin Hambal all practised during this time, so also did Jafar al Sadiq who elaborated the doctrine of imamatethe basis for the Shi'a religious thought.
There was no clearly accepted formula for determining succession in the Abbasid caliphate.
Two or three sons or other relatives of the dying caliph emerged as candidates to the throne, each supported by his own party of supporters. A trial of strength ensued and the most powerful party won and expected favours of the caliph they supported once he ascended the throne.
The caliphate of this dynasty ended with the death of the Caliph al-Ma'mun in CE, when the period of Turkish domination began. This resulted in Sunni protests in far off places including the Khilafat Movement in India, which was later on upon gaining independence from Britain divided into Sunni dominated Pakistan and secular India.
Pakistan, the most populous Sunni state at its birth, however later got partitioned into Pakistan and Bangladesh. The demise of Ottoman caliphate also resulted in the emergence of Saudi Arabiaa dynastic absolute monarchy with the support of the British and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhabthe founder of Wahhabism.
The expediencies of cold war resulted in encouragement of Afghan refugees in Pakistan to be radicalised, trained and armed to fight the communist regime backed by USSR forces in Afghanistan giving birth to Taliban.
The Taliban wrestled power from the communists in Afghanistan and formed a government under the leadership of Mohammed Omarwho was addressed as the Emir of the faithful, an honorific way of addressing the caliph.Syria is in the middle of a religious war between Sunni and Shiite Muslims.
They provide a structure or framework for a Muslim's life, just as pillars do for buildings. A Question of Leadership The division between Shia and Sunni dates back . According to “The American Mosque ,” a survey sponsored by several Muslim American organizations, 7 percent of roughly 2, mosques in America are Shiite, and most have been built in the. For those who don’t know or fully understand the millennial war between Sunni and Shia – the unending battle to prove who are the true Muslims — the preeminent scholar on Islam Robert Spencer explains it fully at Aleteia. The Fall of Iraq. Jihad between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims is .
But Sunni Muslims fleeing religious persecution can choose one of the many Sunni states in the region. Most Syrians have ended up in Jordan and Turkey, which are both Sunni countries.
The Sunni Muslim in America: Truths, Myths, and Cultural Impact Essay helpful in discussing any religion, but especially the experience of Sunni Muslims in America. Taking a further look would require a basic understanding of the principal doctrines of the Sunni Muslim.
Dec 08, · The truth about Muslims in America may be shocking -- but not in the way Donald Trump might think. The truth about Muslims in America may be shocking -- but not in the way Donald Trump might think.
In , the Shia-Sunni Alliance of New Jersey issued a joint statement, signed by 28 Muslim organizations, condemning ISIS, the group also known as the Islamic State. Meanwhile, Sunni and Shiite. The followers of Sunni Islam, one of the two major branches of the tradition (the other is Shi'a), make up approximately 80 percent of the Muslim population in .
chip bruce shreve - 2/18/ Jesus, a prophet, a great healer. No. Jesus who was known to walk this earth by almost all the religions of the world at that time is proof of God and man on earth.